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SERIES: Patterns - MS
LEVEL: Year, MintMark, & Major Variety

1792 1C J-2, BN (Regular Strike)

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Image courtesy of Alan Weinberg Collection

PCGS VF35BN
PCGS #:
11004
Diameter:
24.00 millimeters
Designer:
Henry Voight
Weight:
4.48 grams
Edge:
Reeded
Mintage:
Unknown
Metal Content:
Billon
Auction Record:
$603,750 • PCGS VF30 • 1-1-2008 • Heritage
Condition Census (Explain)
Pos Grade Thumbnail Pedigree and History
1 AU53 PCGS estimated grade  

Lorin G. Parmelee Collection - - New York Coin & Stamp 6/1890 - Steigerwalt - Virgil Brand Collection - B. Max Mehl, sold privately on 1/11/1936 - Norweb Collection - Bowers & Merena 11/1988:3393, $35,200 - Alan Weinberg Collection

2 VF35 PCGS grade

Wolcott Family, possibly preserved by the family since 1792, surfaced at the 2004 ANA Convention - Anthony Terranova - Goldberg 2/2005:806, $437,000 - Donna Levin and Denis Loring Collection - Madison Collection - Heritage 1/2008:3462, $603,750 - Legend Numismatics, sold privately - Bob R. Simpson Collection - Heritage 1/2016:5222, $352,500

3 VF30 estimated grade  

George Seavey Collection - William Strobridge 6/1873:841, not sold because Lorin G. Parmelee purchased the collection intact - Lorin G. Parmelee Collection, sold privately sometime before 6/30/1886 - Dr. Edward Maris Collection - Harlan Page Smith 6/1886:146, $67.50 - T. Harrison Garrett Collection - Robert Garrett Collection - John Work Garrett Collection - Johns Hopkins University Collection - Bowers & Ruddy 3/25/1981:2348, $28,000 - Donald Groves Partrick Collection - Heritage 1/2015:5503, $305,500

4 VG10 PCGS grade  

Loye Lauder Collection - William Doyle Galleries 12/1983:234 - Dana Linett, sold for $15,000 in 1983 - David Henderson - Bowers & Merena Rare Coin Review #53 10/1984, $24,750 - Benson Collection - Goldbergs 2/2001:151, $57,500 - American Numismatic Rarities 8/2006:14, $218,500

5 F details, environmental damage PCGS grade  

Major Lenox R. Lohr Collection - Empire Coin Company FPL, sold privately in 1961 - Bowers & Ruddy 11/1976:909 - Stack's 1/1987:476 - Stack’s/Bowers 8/2013:4017, $70,500

Possibly from Elder 10/1908:617

Condition Census (Explain) Show fewer rows
Pos Grade Thumbnail Pedigree and History
1 AU53 PCGS estimated grade  

Lorin G. Parmelee Collection - - New York Coin & Stamp 6/1890 - Steigerwalt - Virgil Brand Collection - B. Max Mehl, sold privately on 1/11/1936 - Norweb Collection - Bowers & Merena 11/1988:3393, $35,200 - Alan Weinberg Collection

2 VF35 PCGS grade

Wolcott Family, possibly preserved by the family since 1792, surfaced at the 2004 ANA Convention - Anthony Terranova - Goldberg 2/2005:806, $437,000 - Donna Levin and Denis Loring Collection - Madison Collection - Heritage 1/2008:3462, $603,750 - Legend Numismatics, sold privately - Bob R. Simpson Collection - Heritage 1/2016:5222, $352,500

3 VF30 estimated grade  

George Seavey Collection - William Strobridge 6/1873:841, not sold because Lorin G. Parmelee purchased the collection intact - Lorin G. Parmelee Collection, sold privately sometime before 6/30/1886 - Dr. Edward Maris Collection - Harlan Page Smith 6/1886:146, $67.50 - T. Harrison Garrett Collection - Robert Garrett Collection - John Work Garrett Collection - Johns Hopkins University Collection - Bowers & Ruddy 3/25/1981:2348, $28,000 - Donald Groves Partrick Collection - Heritage 1/2015:5503, $305,500

4 VG10 PCGS grade  

Loye Lauder Collection - William Doyle Galleries 12/1983:234 - Dana Linett, sold for $15,000 in 1983 - David Henderson - Bowers & Merena Rare Coin Review #53 10/1984, $24,750 - Benson Collection - Goldbergs 2/2001:151, $57,500 - American Numismatic Rarities 8/2006:14, $218,500

5 F details, environmental damage PCGS grade  

Major Lenox R. Lohr Collection - Empire Coin Company FPL, sold privately in 1961 - Bowers & Ruddy 11/1976:909 - Stack's 1/1987:476 - Stack’s/Bowers 8/2013:4017, $70,500

Possibly from Elder 10/1908:617

Ron Guth: 1792 saw a flurry of activity aimed at establishing a Mint in America.  Congress passed a Mint Act, a Director was chosen, a lot was purchased, a building was erected, and employees were hired.  While the Mint Act gave directions as to which denominations were to be struck, apparently the Mint officials felt they had some discretion in choosing formats and designs.
For the One Cent piece, which was to be one of the main coins produced in 1793, four types were tested: a large copper piece (the "Birch" Cent), a smaller copper piece with a silver center (the Silver-Center Cent"), another of the same size (the Fusible Alloy Cent, in which the silver and copper were melted together), and another of the same size in pure copper.  Although no written evidence remains to record the testing, clearly the large, pure copper piece was favored, as this was the chosen format when production of Large Cents began in 1793.

Judd's statement that the edges of these coins are diagonally reeded may be incorrect; all examples observed by researcher Saul Teichman have vertically reeded edges.  Judd and Breen considered all the plain edge pieces to be counterfeits.

Judd 2 is the "non-Silver Center" version of Henry Voight's cent pattern.  Judd 2 is known in two versions: one version made of pure copper and another version where a small amount of silver was combined with copper to create a billon alloy (sometimes referred to as "fusible alloy".  The only way to tell the two versions apart is by metallurgical analysis.

Fusible Alloy examples:

Only one Fusible Alloy Cent is known.  Breen claimed that the Pine Tree-ANA example had been chemically(?) tested and found to contain silver, but no silver was found in this coin when it was tested later on behalf of the cataloguer of the Norweb collection.  Few of the so-called "Copper" 1792 Cents have been tested, so more "Fusible Alloy" Cents may exist.

- Harmer Rooke 11/1969 - New Jersey private collection.  According to the Norweb cataloguer, this piece was tested using x-ray flourescence and found to contain silver.

Pure Copper examples:
The composition of many of the coins listed below has not been tested.  Thus, some may be "Fusible Alloy" (a mixture of copper and silver) instead of being pure copper

Judd plate coin (not plated in the 7th edition)
- National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institution (called "finest" by Saul Teichman)

"EF-40"
- Lorin Parmelee, June 1890, Lot 6
- Virgil M. Brand
- B. Max Mehl, January 11, 1936
- B&M "Norweb" 11/1988:3393, "Second Finest Known, 62.2 grains, 22.4 mm, 360°", $35,200.00

PCGS VF-30
- Oliver Wolcott, Jr?
- Wolcott family
- Goldbergs 02/2005:806, sold for $437,000.00

Very Fine
- Seavey, 1873
- E. Maris, 1886, Lot 146
- T.H. Garrett
- Bowers & Ruddy's "Garrett Collection" sale, March 1981:2348, "63.1 grains", $28,000.00

PCGS VG-10
- Lauder:234 (pedigreed incorrectly there)
- Dana Linett, sold for $15,000 in 1983
- David Henderson
- Bowers and Merena "Rare Coin Review, No. 53" 10/1984, page 16
- Goldbergs "Benson Part 1" 02/2001:151, $57,500.00
- Southern Collection
- Simspon Collection

Hinman
- Paramount "Century" 04/1965:50
- Bowers & Ruddy "Rare Coin Review, No. 19", 1974, p. 17
- Bowers & Ruddy "Rare Coin Review, No. 20", 1974, p. 14
- Douglas Robins, Inc. (Coin World, December 4, 1974)
- Pine Tree 02/1975:59 (not Lot 69 as has been cited on occasion)
- American Numismatic Association
70.2 grains.  The authenticity of this piece has been questioned in the past but it is believed to be authentic by Tom DeLorey and Walter Breen.  Breen claimed that this piece was tested chemically and found to contain silver, but this was refuted in a later test done on behalf of the cataloguer of the Norweb collection.

- W.S. Appleton

- Massachusetts Historical Society (illustrated at Crosby Plate X - 12)

- American Numismatic Society

- Adams-Woodin plate coin

- L. R. Lohr (1961)

- Bowers & Ruddy "River Oaks" 11/1976:909

- Stack's 01/1987:476

Sources and/or recommended reading:
"United States Pattern, Experimental and Trial Pieces" by J. Hewitt Judd, M.D.

"Walter Breen's Complete Encyclopedia of United States and Colonial Coins" by Walter Breen

"United States Patterns And Related Issues" by Andrew W. Pollock III

www.uspatterns.com/j2p2.html