Ron Guth: Prior to 1776, coins and tokens were issued under 1) governmental authority or royal edict in colonies which eventually became states or 2) by private minters or foreign governments for local or regional use.
The Maryland coins were issued as part of a private coinage by Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, sometime in 1658-1659 and possibly later.
The New Jersey "St. Patrick" coins were struck overseas but brought to America by Mark Newby. They often show a brass splasher intended to make the king's crown appear golden in color.
The Virginia coins bear a portrait of the British King George III. They are relatively common today because of a hoard that was found in the late nineteenth century by Col. Mendes Cohen. The hoard contained more than 2,200 bright Uncirculated examples.